Demographic, Behavioural, and Social Determinants and Future Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Ghazal S. Fazli, Lorraine L. Lipscombe, Fatema M. Ali, Chris Kenaszchuk, Laura C. Rosella

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Key Findings

Type 2 diabetes prevalence in Peel Region is increasing because of factors such as age, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and immigrant status. This prevalence is also impacted by factors including mental health, housing and food insecurity, racism, trauma and oppression.

The future risk of developing diabetes among residents in Peel is disproportionately elevated among visible minority and immigrant groups. We must consider the many factors that increase type 2 diabetes risk when looking for ways to reduce this risk. In the coming years, diabetes incidence in Peel Region is projected to rapidly increase, particularly among those experiencing a greater degree of socioeconomic disadvantages and health inequities.

Over half of the population in Peel Region is represented by those who identify as a visible minority (58.7% among adults with diabetes and 57.3% among those without diabetes). A higher proportion of immigrants are living with diabetes (73.3%) compared to immigrants without diabetes (56.6%). Among adults living with diabetes, 40.7% reported being physically inactive as compared to 27.3% of adults living without diabetes.

A significant proportion of residents reported being overweight (37.7% with diabetes and 33.2% without diabetes). Over half of the residents with hypertension reported having diabetes (60.8%), which was comparable to those living without diabetes (57.4%).

Although food insecurity is an important determinant of type 2 diabetes risk and an indicator of poverty, only a small number of residents reported experiencing severe food insecurity (3.1% among those living with diabetes and 2.0% living without diabetes). A small fraction of residents reported an income of less than $20,000 (6.5% among those with diabetes and 5.7% of those living without diabetes).

The 10-year risk of developing new diabetes for residents of Peel Region overall is 11.5%, with an additional 102,000 adults aged >20 years living with diabetes by 2028.

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